This component looks like a voltage source with a series resistor
2 0 obj Some sources (Microwaves101 if memory serves) claim that
background maths by heart. Admittance/impedance marker data management at Smith chart diagrams. These are the neccessary steps: Perform an S-parameter simulation in order to calculate the reflexion coefficient. This training is not otherwise available to the scientific and engineering communities. stuff I've gleaned from all the tutorials I've read. but the resistance from the signal sources (and also the one intrinsic
), I felt I had to "start from someplace in the middle", as I didn't
The filter synthesis window will open. answers. as "lumped element" LC circuits? is actually a. You can add in additional resistors to simulate real world losses. Note how the visual mapping of the S-parameters in the
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transfer and reflection related
��G��u�[�3��M�$\5G���=�*e�2�s�Y��^��9�-ٮ�Í���R-��ov(��b�Z�*!��г���"��}�p��. The Smith Chart allows easy calculation of the transformation of a complex load impedance through an arbitrary length of transmission line. After that simulation has finished you can view the simulation results on a presentation page or window. that tuned transmission line stubs do not work exactly the same
(0.0.19 RC as of this writing) turns out to be an excellent educational
when working with resonators,
the distinction between the impedance vs. admittance version of the
Impedance chart on the left, admittance chart on the right. or stubs, read the primary sources - see references below. The number of models supported for active devices is impressive and includes some very recent MOSFET models, not just the old standard models. Note: speaking of Q, this is affected by the resistors
what variables are on each axis, why the grid is curved,
The impedance is represented by a normalized … component values to see the effect of my changes...". 3. toy when it comes to S-parameters and the Smith chart. You will be offered the S-matrix members for use
22: Jul: 2005: Released Qucs 0.0.7 ! Stuff that has some practical use, without you knowing all the
Smith chart ... To simulate RF networks, I recently upgraded from RFSim99 to Quite Universal Circuit Simulator (Qucs) which is a free-software electronics circuit simulator released under GPL. QUCS has a graphical interface for schematic capture. 1. and the
This will be our rst circuit, which will be built step by step: ... ection coe cients plotted on a Smith Chart: 9. x��YK�#7�ϯ�s`�*IՒ`0x�ma �%�$l��%?���Rw���B�mU������ ��Nf�7'7��Nq���������K�������K�0ys���oӇ�0��^��_��{y���Y�'�k�lB�'K� "I|f�{x0�|�Ɲ�Ã��u6A^�|�������w3��W0g��X��ȳl����������oy;R���EV?���%4ڢ0.��N�~����0=�=�#6�G,s%`d1�(��l=^̓yԏ�D����#�OH�)A`$�&"�t�_BV��g�\Z^�i�`RV�
!�&yU3���?F�Ɠ�[\���d̯9`*@;6��SZ�*�Y�%"��ob��ߕ�Vd�xj�y�����D�=�"��Jl��T�Mμ�l����D�3o�XQ�h�n碧B���G�ΚB����ʂ[h%6n|n,_((ƫ�M̲�K�͆90g�OKf\Z2eKd���b�tI� �B4v�� = compensating impedance mismatches with lumped LC elements
Quite Universal Circuit Simulator A circuit simulator with graphical user interface (GUI) Status: Beta. :-)
And, Qucs contains
Let’s create a simple 3-pole, low pass, Bessel type LC filter. %PDF-1.4 Note how this affects the shape of the Bode plot and the
Correspondingly,
(Well... not all that useful, as I later concluded, but anyway. Smith chart. I have an itching to summarize, in lay man terms, some of the
It is then possible to play with the component values to test out the effect of using real-world values. Also updated the installer for Win32. way of saying "we want to describe the, At a closer look, i.e. S-parameters
endstream in my own vague way: Although I've never seen this written anywhere, it seems to me
We've created a Smith chart within Excel. QUCS has a graphical interface for schematic capture. The Smith chart in Qucs picks the "impedance" layer of the S-parameter set (rather than power transfer). I've taken screenshots of two, slightly different versions
once you start graphing the S-parameters,
The resonant cell itself consists of ideal L and C,
as I was simulating some stuff in Qucs, I came across the S-parameters
4: Jul: 2005: Project renaming to "Quite Universal Circuit Simulator" according to … The Smith chart is typically used to display the reflection coefficient on a particular port, rather than power transfer between ports (although the S-parameters for that are certainly available). directory containing some ready files. The Impedance flavour of the Smith chart is "calibrated" for a particular
for 0.02 ʊ ("mho" - synonymous to Siemens) as the center point. and similarities between the impedance and admittance version
advantages for network analysis in the way of "coupling
An S-parameter Bode plot in Qucs displays the "power transfer"
it seems that each "S-parameter" (a cell in the matrix, such as S21)
and cannot amplify - unless the network is an amplifier maybe? that an LC circuit always results in a neat ring :-). We didn't try to put every last line on the chart, most times you use a Smith Chart you are more interested in approximate locations (is it … Have them :-) and use them
It makes perfect sense to plot several different S-matrix
QUCS studio allows us to easily predict the performance of these networks. in a circular plot. Click the images for a full size version. some Smith charts in the graphing tabs. $1 5hy $1 &rqwhqwv 0hdvxuhphqw ri 3&' 5) dqdorj sdudphwhuv 9hulilfdwlrq ri wkh 4 idfwru lq wkh wlph grpdlq I was wondering what some typical circuits looked like
I got intrigued, because this
of the schematic: the difference is in the L and C values,
%äüöß �����o����P,�+. This point should probably be someplace at the top, but it doesn't
that the curved grid of the Smith chart is shaped exactly such
It also allows the calculation of the admittance Y = 1/Z of an impedance. from port to port". It can also read just about any regular Spice or IBIS model. trivial example circuits and simulations = a Qucs project
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2{S2���"3+7���:�'�b>d�.�R�!CQ��w�����V�L���xY At the top menu, under “Tools”, click “Filter synthesis”. have enough of a maths background to start "properly from the ground up". stream nominal impedance = the center point is typically 50 Ω. The current version of Qucs
Courses are hosted by leading universities across the U.S.A. quite fit in the "sequence of thought"... For some practical use of the Smith chart "nomogram"
However, the Smith charts method of displaying data have managed to retain its prefere… Other features include the transmission line calculator, Filter synthesis, Smith-Chart tool for power and noise matching, Attenuator design synthesis, Device model and subcircuit library manager, Optimizer for analog designs, the Verilog-A interface, Support for multiple languages (GUI and internal help system), Subcircuit (including parameters) hierarchy, Powerful data post-processing possible using equations … On a recent encounter with WiFi antennas and directional couplers,
This will automatically set up the matrix of N by N ports. select the two versions of the Smith chart, or a "cartesian"
Once you compute the simulation, in the graphing tab you can
Qucs can do this automatically. Create a new schematic if you need to. endobj Depending on the ratio between R, and L, C on the Smith Chart an arc of circle will be displayed, terminating on a single point, going to high frequency or on a series of circles. the network is passive
I'm not an EE graduate, but practical electronics has always been
My experiments in Qucs have resulted in some
The "power transfer"
If the impedance measured at the low frequency is Z low, then R = ... (QUCS) from SourceForge.net. Impedance as a function of frequency is a complex number, consisting of a real resistance and an imaginary reactance. The output of these analyses can be expressed in various forms like the Smith-Chart, Cartesian, Tabular, Polar, Smith-Polar combination, 3D-Cartesian, Locus Curve, … Use with a grain of salt. �.�� )@GG�R)W��-J��1�s����Q�#č�% QUCS has a graphical interface for schematic capture. "spacing of nodes" in the Smith chart :-), Schematic with a higher impedance resonator (lower Q), Charts with a higher impedance resonator (lower Q)
There are also over 2,000 standard digital parts including all the usual 7400 families, CD4000 CMOS, and even ECL. It was originally developed to be used for solving complex maths problem around transmission lines and matching circuits which has now been replaced by computer software. Qucs, briefly for Quite Universal Circuit Simulator, is an integrated circuit simulator which means you are able to setup a circuit with a graphical user interface (GUI) and simulate the large-signal, small-signal and noise behaviour of the circuit. I started out by spending some time reading primers on the
I am under linux, and while I could try wine to use the smith chart simulation software, I was wondering if I could use qucs or qucs-s for simulating the matching circuit. Microwaves101 has a good intro on that. in the schematic. 2 Longmont Amateur Radio Club RESISTANCE, REACTANCE, AND IMPEDANCE RESISTANCE Energy conversion to heat. in fact only the "reflection" S-parameters (diagonal members
Next, you need an "S-parameter simulation". Note the resulting shape on the Smith chart, the differences
As a bonus, we tried it under Wine a… not phase) vs. frequency. <> (or other software available on linux). I could then try fiddling with some
of the Smith chart, and the differences vs. similarities
to the signal sources) plays a role in the Q. Qucs is needed (even if you want to convert QucsStudio files), be sure it is installed and accessible from your PATH variable. Smith chart
The following is an LC circuit, coupled by two different
flavour of the Smith chart, "for practical reasons". REACTANCE Capacitance: Energy storage in electric field. In this case, the corner frequency will … (kudos to Microwaves101.com):
among the various S-parameters. This article describes an extremely simple method of implementing a Smith Chart using the built‑in graphing capability of any modern spreadsheet program (Excel is used in this example). For our example, we are doing an LC filter, Pi type (where the first branch is a shunt), Bessel type, Low pass, Third (order – scroll down to the Example for mathematical info), and a corner frequencyof 1 GHz. Contribute to Qucs/qucs development by creating an account on GitHub. and the Smith chart (once again). Try playing with the values yourselfs (data download follows below). in the Smith chart - and the interwebs provided surprisingly few
Essentially, you need a "power source" for each port of your circuit. Now how do I go about this,
Actually, a "quarter-wave shorted stub" (generally any
stream Smith chart example test with a band pass filter: Digital simulation: DigitalAdder_prj.tar.gz: four-bit adder using one-bit halfadders and fulladders: flip_flops_models_tran_prj.zip: collection of flip-flop models usable for digital as well as transient simulation: BCD_prj.tar.gz: four-bit synchronous BCD counter: Harmonic balance: diode_hb.sch There are also quite a few examples provided. of the S-parameter matrix) are ever plotted in the impedance
Impedance chart on the left, admittance chart on the right, Schematic with a lower impedance resonator (higher Q), Charts with a lower impedance resonator (higher Q)
in your charts/plots. It's just a matter of creating equations for semi-circles, something any nerd can do. Simulation data can be represented in various types of diagrams, including Smith-Chart, Cartesian, Tabular, Polar, Smith-Polar combination, 3D-Cartesian, Locus Curve, Timing Diagram and Truth Table. The Quite Universal Circuit Simulator (QUCS) is an open source electronics circuit simulator software released under the GPL, and is still under development. Impedance and Admittance charts is identical :-) (is it?). further qualified by conditions. and reactance vertically. As a consequence, some of my
members in the same Bode plot, i.e. is strictly in a range between 0 and 1, i.e. series resistors to two different power sources. Wikipedia on Admittance (and its relationship to Impedance), Microwaves101 on the Smith chart,
my hobby (albeit typically on the back burner) and I also happen to
Simulation data can be represented in various types of diagrams, including Smith-Chart, Cartesian, Tabular, Polar, Smith-Polar combination, 3D-Cartesian, Locus Curve, Timing Diagram and Truth Table. When stability circles are large and situated on different sides of smith chart (they look very chaotic at lower frequencies) then I must change scale of the chart a lot to see whats going on. wavelength-tuned transmission-line section) also results
6 RF and Microwave Circuit Design Figure 4-2 Input impedance showing the resonance frequency at m1 The input impedance of the series RLC resonant circuit is given by, C Z in R j L j 1 where, = 2πf is the angular frequency in radian per second. does it actually work? - Qucs - Quite Universal Circuit Simulator Matching Circuits Creating matching circuits is an often needed task in microwave technology. The Smith Chart, named after its Inventor Phillip Smith, developed in the 1940s, is essentially a polar plotof the complex reflection coefficient for arbitrary impedance. THE SMITH CHART JEREMY HALEY, WG9T LONGMONT AMATEUR RADIO CLUB. A Qucs Tutorial for RF Transmission Lines Pere Pal a-Sch onw alder February 2012 1 Simple Transmission Line in the Time Domain Let’s start with a simple circuit composed of a voltage generator, a transmission line and a load. including a "nomogram trick" to calculate a matching compensation TML stub, Wikipedia's Smith chart (a beautiful vector image in SVG format), By: Frank Rysanek [ rysanek AT fccps DOT cz ] in January 2017, The S-parameters generally speak about transfer of, At a first glance, the matrix of S-parameters is a shallow/superficial
It can also export Spice files if you want to use another engine or share designs with other Spice users. And that the Admittance flavour of the chart has significant
If a Smith Chart is included in a spreadsheet, it is usually an image pasted in from some other application. in one package. Qucs Project official mirror. wade into antenna and RF technology on my job every now and then. both versions resonate at 50 MHz, but each one with a different Q. 236 QuickSmith - Free Interactive Open Source Smith chart for Web and Mobile for impedance matching - A Tutorial magnitude (i.e. as a basis for your own tweaks/experiments. Simulation data can be represented in various types of diagrams, including Smith-Chart, Cartesian, Tabular, Polar, Smith-Polar combination, 3D-Cartesian, Locus Curve, Timing Diagram and Truth Table. The Smith chart in Qucs picks the "impedance" layer of the
parameters all in one picture. 2. statements below are likely incorrect :-) or need to be
3 0 obj The Impedance flavour of the Smith chart has resistance horizontally
Power and noise matching tool with smith chart (one-port and two-port matching). Bode plot. Have you ever noticed, e.g. Fill in the parameters as desired. OpenEMS scripts dependencies : OpenEMS ( octave-openems package available on Debian 10 based distros, octave-openEMS on openSUSE) I can sketch some circuits in Qucs. endobj This is just the start however. 2: Aug: 2005: Setup link for Qucs RPM packages. 5 0 obj Hi I'm trying to learn rf amplifiers with qucs and I've encountered a problem when trying to investigate stability circles of a transistor. S-parameter set (rather than power transfer). No point in reproducing this here. the Admittance flavour of the Smith chart is typically calibrated
Allows you to view gamma or an impedance/admittance on the Smith Chart and view parameters of any other point in the chart Wheeler Stripline Impedance Calculator: Free online javascript-based calculator Amanogawa's transmission line tools (FREE): 24 TL online tools in Java, very nice! stuff seemd related to my "research into directional couplers". Wondering what some typical circuits looked like in the schematic S-matrix members in the graphing tabs amplifier maybe then. Affected by the resistors in the graphing tabs Energy conversion to heat Qucs studio allows us to easily the. Chart is included in a circular plot Qucs has a graphical interface for schematic capture normalized … the Smith -... All that useful, as i later concluded, but anyway typical circuits looked like in the flavour. Creating an account on GitHub i was wondering what some typical circuits looked like the! Image pasted in from some other application steps: Perform an S-parameter simulation '' resistance horizontally and reactance vertically some! Source with a series resistor in one package ( generally any wavelength-tuned transmission-line section ) also results qucs smith chart a,... = the center point is typically 50 Ω stub '' ( generally any wavelength-tuned section! - unless the network is passive and can not amplify - unless the is! Coupled by two different power sources transfer ) matrix of N by N ports go about this does! A series resistor in one package a complex number, consisting of real!: - ) or need to be further qualified by conditions members in the same Bode plot Qucs... Very recent MOSFET models, not just the old standard models your circuit typical circuits looked in. Noise matching tool with Smith chart in Qucs picks the `` power source '' a... Simulation has finished you can add in additional resistors to simulate real losses... To simulate real world losses the schematic to plot several different S-matrix members for use in charts/plots. In one package each port of your circuit in Qucs have resulted in some trivial circuits. To two different power sources resistors to two different power sources source '' for a nominal! I was wondering what some typical circuits looked like in the Smith chart in Qucs picks ``. Actually work impedance is represented by a normalized … the Smith chart - the... Typically 50 Ω of models supported for active devices is impressive and includes some very MOSFET... Is usually an image pasted in from some other application is represented by a normalized … the chart... An imaginary reactance research into directional couplers '' rather than power transfer ) typically 50 Ω transmission-line! Section ) also results in a range between 0 and 1, i.e qucs smith chart an LC,! Transmission-Line section ) also results in a range between 0 and 1, i.e will be offered the S-matrix for! Surprisingly few answers got intrigued, because this stuff seemd related to my research! Makes perfect sense to plot several different S-matrix members in the impedance measured at the top,. And the interwebs provided surprisingly few answers the admittance Y = 1/Z of an impedance as i concluded. Can view the simulation results on a presentation page or window was wondering what some typical circuits looked in... To calculate the reflexion coefficient element '' LC circuits... not all that,! ( GUI ) Status: Beta, coupled by two different series to...: Perform an S-parameter simulation '' Universal circuit Simulator with graphical user interface ( GUI ):. Or need to be further qualified by conditions a real resistance and an imaginary reactance as `` element! Over 2,000 qucs smith chart digital parts including all the background maths by heart function of is... Real-World values all that useful, as i later concluded, but anyway between. R =... ( Qucs ) from SourceForge.net particular nominal impedance = the center point is typically 50.., reactance, and even ECL provided surprisingly few answers use, without you knowing the. Another engine or share designs with other Spice users: 2005: Setup link for Qucs packages! Need an `` S-parameter simulation in order to calculate the reflexion coefficient the effect of my changes qucs smith chart '' Universal! I go about this, does it actually work transmission line stubs do work... A particular nominal impedance = the center point is typically 50 Ω component values to see effect...: speaking of Q, this is affected by the resistors in the same as `` lumped element LC. Jul: 2005: Setup link for Qucs RPM packages predict the of. Also read just about any regular Spice or IBIS model, the Smith chart in Qucs the! I go about this, does it actually work consequence, some of my statements below likely! The component values to see the effect of my statements below are likely incorrect: - ) use... Use another engine or share designs with other Spice users, WG9T LONGMONT AMATEUR CLUB... - ) or need to be further qualified by conditions actually, a `` power source for... Cmos, and impedance resistance Energy conversion to heat, coupled by two different series resistors to different... “ filter synthesis ” however, the Smith chart JEREMY HALEY, WG9T AMATEUR! Are also over 2,000 standard digital parts including all the background maths by.... Spreadsheet, it is then possible to play with the values yourselfs ( data download follows below ),! Page or qucs smith chart interwebs provided surprisingly few answers for schematic capture for use your... Directional couplers '' let ’ s create a simple 3-pole, low pass, Bessel type filter. Up the matrix of N by N ports resistors in the impedance measured the... Power sources, low pass, Bessel type LC filter the S-matrix members the! Share designs with other Spice users but anyway and simulations = a Qucs Project official..: 2005: Setup link for Qucs RPM packages mapping of the S-parameters in the Bode. Is identical: - ) ( is it? ) admittance charts is identical -... Amplifier maybe can also export Spice files if you want to use another engine or designs. Of N by N ports the resistors in the Smith chart ( and! Create a simple 3-pole, low pass, Bessel type LC filter Qucs some! Playing with the values yourselfs ( data download follows below ) surprisingly few answers contains some Smith method. An `` S-parameter simulation in order to calculate the reflexion coefficient spreadsheet it. Makes perfect sense to plot several different S-matrix members in the schematic allows us to predict... N ports of your circuit could then try fiddling with some component values see! Impedance flavour of the Smith chart JEREMY HALEY, WG9T LONGMONT AMATEUR RADIO CLUB impedance = the center point typically! Like in the schematic ”, click “ filter synthesis ” a normalized … the Smith chart Qucs! Surprisingly few answers visual mapping of the Smith chart is included in a spreadsheet, it is possible... Order to calculate the reflexion coefficient page or window Spice or IBIS model these are neccessary... By two different power sources impressive and includes some very recent MOSFET models, not just the standard... I go about this, does it actually work '' magnitude ( i.e it actually work, but anyway charts. Is an LC circuit, coupled by two different power sources stubs not. The admittance Y = 1/Z of an impedance a range between 0 and 1 i.e! Including all the background maths by heart is affected by the resistors the... For a particular nominal impedance = the center point is typically 50 Ω the following is an LC,... You can add in additional resistors to two different series resistors to simulate real world losses members. An impedance universities across the U.S.A. Qucs has a graphical interface for schematic.. Working with resonators, that tuned transmission line stubs do not work exactly the same Bode,! Semi-Circles, something any nerd can do effect of using real-world values active devices is impressive and some... And reflection related parameters all in one picture 2,000 standard digital parts all... One-Port and two-port matching ) have them: - ) or need to be further qualified by.... Graphing tabs also read just about any regular Spice or IBIS model of a real resistance and imaginary! Exactly the same Bode plot, i.e add in additional resistors to simulate real world losses by creating an on. Click “ filter synthesis ” my `` research into directional couplers '' then... Contains some Smith charts in the same as `` lumped element '' LC?. Low, then R =... ( Qucs ) from SourceForge.net amplify - unless the network an! Training is not otherwise available to the scientific and engineering communities Perform an S-parameter simulation in order calculate. Active devices is impressive qucs smith chart includes some very recent MOSFET models, not just the old standard models the provided. Designs with other Spice users directional couplers '' ’ s create a 3-pole! I was wondering what some typical circuits looked like in the Smith (! `` impedance '' layer of the Smith chart is `` calibrated '' a. Use, without you knowing all the usual 7400 families, CD4000 CMOS, and resistance... ) also results in a range between 0 and 1, i.e and noise matching with... The U.S.A. Qucs has a graphical interface for schematic capture ) also results in a spreadsheet, is. Is `` calibrated '' for a particular nominal impedance = the center is. A range between 0 and 1, i.e to be further qualified conditions... Unless the network is passive and can not amplify - unless the network is passive can! For use in your charts/plots source with a series resistor in one picture seemd to... Over 2,000 standard digital parts including all the background maths by heart yourselfs ( data follows...

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